SO-152 (СО-152) is a Soviet 152.4 mm self-propelled artillery developed in 1968. It was a response to the American 155 mm M109 howitzer. The development started in 1967 according to the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of USSR from July 4, 1967. In 1968, the SO-152 was completed and entered service in 1971. Its GRAU designation is 2S3 (2С3). The fighting vehicle also received the additional designation Akatsiya (Акация), which is Russian for "acacia". The 2S3 became a well-known (self-propelled) artillery vehicle after it fought in different combat operations in Afghanistan, and it is where it proved to be an effective and reliable artillery system. The 2S3 Akatsiya has seen action during two Chechen wars and military conflicts on the territory of the former USSR, were it was quite useful. It fought in the Soviet War in Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq War, Gulf War, first and second Chechen War, and some other civil wars. The 2S3 was only exported to foreign countries in small numbers.